This session focuses on and tries to appraise diffusion MRI (dMRI)-derived imaging biomarkers (dMRI-IB) for brain disease. To categorize dMRI-IB: 1) confirm the definition of IB; 2) proceed through dMRI-derived measures and applications; 3) introduce the possible candidate of dMRI-IB; and 4) discuss about barriers that dMRI-IB candidates should overcome. In addition, this session will address following issues: 1) why only limited dMRI measures can be considered for IB? 2) what is the problem for dMRI-IB candidates to become true IB? 3) what can we do for creating new IB?